CycleScienceTraining “Base Assessment Package” $300

CycleScienceTraining provides a unique combination of physiological metrics to assess the triathlete, cyclist, or runner’s fitness level and from there create a unique personalized training program tailored to you.  Our Base Assessment Package includes:


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  • VO2 Max, gas analysis (O2/CO2 exchange) test provided by a metabolic cart.
  • Onset of Blood Lactate Test (OBLA) This test is conducted during a ramped protocol test on the professional level Cyclus2 Ergometer. Blood draw conducted by our staff phlebotomist.
  • A Maximum Cadence Test (MCT) The MCT is conducted on our professional level Cyclus2 Ergometer for 6 seconds of all-out effort and is another important anaerobic metric utilized for the sprinter, TT cyclist or Triathlete.
  • Bifurcated Body Composition Assessment via Skinfold measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis.
  • Power Testing At CycleScienceTraining we understand how important power is for the cyclist, triathlete and runner, which is why CST conducts both a Peak Anaerobic Power Test (PAPT30) and assesses Functional Threshold Power (FTP).
  • Additional services include a second discipline (bike or run) VO2 Max Assessment for an additional fee of $50.  Or our Integrated Core Strength, L/R Imbalance, Flexibility Assessment (CEP). The (CEP) is the basis for our posture Corrective Exercise Program (CEP) which is designed to stabilize, strengthen and increase power transfer by correcting posture, strength, flexibility imbalances from left to right in the athlete; $75.


The Peak Anaerobic Power Test is a measurement of the maximum peak power you can produce (measured in watts) over a short period of time. PAPT30 tests are critical for assessing your “break away” power or your maximum sprinting ability to the line. It is measured with an Isokinetic Wingate Anaerobic Test.

A Functional Threshold Power test is a measurement of your maximum power over a longer period of time. The FTP test is correlated to your Maximum Lactate Steady State, (MLSS) or your Lactate Threshold (LT). This metric is critical for understanding and applying the cyclist’s true “functional” power over time, as opposed to simply measuring your maximum watts, (i.e. maximum power). It is “functional” in the sense of how effective you are at applying your power over a longer period of time.  Peak Anaerobic Power puts you seconds ahead at the finish line, Functional Threshold Power puts you minutes ahead over the entire race.  CycleScienceTraining packages are designed to improve both!


Actual VO2 Max/Lactate Threshold Data From a Real CycleScienceTraining Client

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CycleScienceTraining Key Terms

VO2max – Maximal Oxygen Consumption (Aerobic Capacity)

Maximal oxygen consumption is the highest VO2 value recorded during the cyclist’s maximal effort during exercise. VO2max is thought to be the best indicator of aerobic capacity and therefore of aerobic fitness. It is also a relatively good predictor of endurance performance, however it is not the only predictor of performance for a cyclist, (see LA Lactate Threshold below). VO2max tends to be higher in men than in women. College age males have an average VO2max of 45ml/kg*min and college age females have a VO2max of about 35ml/kg*min. The highest relative VO2max values are typically recorded in small endurance athletes such as cross-country skiers, cyclists, and distance and middle distance runners (values of up to 90ml/kg*min have been recorded).

VO2max levels are primarily determined by the cyclist’s genetics. But VO2max can increase with training. An untrained individual may be able to increase VO2max by as much as 15-20%. However, in the well trained cyclist, increases in VO2max may not be as great (they are already nearly as high as they can go). Fortunately for these athletes, with continued training they can become more efficient (economical), such that they can go faster for a given oxygen consumption. Additionally, the percent of VO2max that the cyclist can sustain for prolonged periods of time is also very trainable.

VCO2 – Carbon Dioxide production

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product of cellular metabolic processes. Most of the CO2 given off by the body comes from this cellular respiration.

RER – Respiratory Exchange Ratio

This is the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen consumption (VCO2/VO2). At rest and during low intensity exercise the RER reflects the type(s) of fuel substrates being used by the cells for the production of ATP. For example, an RER closer to 0.70 suggests that primarily fats are being used for the production of energy, whereas an RER closer to 1.0 suggests that primarily carbohydrates are being used.

VE – Pulmonary Ventilation

VE or Pulmonary ventilation is the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs per minute. It is dependent on the depth of each breath (the tidal volume) and the number of breaths taken per minute (breathing frequency). At rest most individuals have a VE of 6-10L/min and maximal exercise values (VEmax) are in the range of 100-170 for most individuals. In elite rowers values of up to 250L/min have been recorded. VE increases linearly with VO2 and workload until about 60% of maximum. Beyond this point it increases at a higher rate.

HR – Heart Rate

Heart rate (HR) is the number of times per minute the heart beats. Cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute, is dependent on HR and stroke volume (SV, the amount of blood pumped out per beat. Resting HR for most individuals is between 60-75 beats/minute. Resting HR tends to be lower in individuals who exercise on a regular basis. Maximal heart rate (HRmax) values are frequently estimated based on the cyclist’s age according to the formula: HRmax = 220-age. It should be noted that this formula provides only a very rough estimate of maximum heart rate.

VE/VO2 & VE/VCO2 – Ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen and carbon dioxide

The ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen is equal to the pulmonary ventilation (VE) divided by oxygen consumption (VO2). At the “Anaerobic threshold” when a significant amount of energy is coming from anaerobic metabolism, there is an increase in lactic acid in the blood (lactic acid is a by-product of anaerobic metabolism). In order to keep the blood from becoming too acidic, ventilation increases and helps the cyclist remove excess CO2. At this point VE increases at a higher rate than oxygen consumption and thus this ratio (VE/VO2) begins to increase. The VE/VO2 can also be used as an index of ventilatory efficiency. If the cyclist’s lungs are very efficient at gas exchange, the cyclist will not need a very high VE for a given VO2.

LA –Blood Lactate (lactic acid) & Anaerobic Capacity

Lactic acid is one of the products of anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism in the cells. Because it is a relatively strong acid, it is usually found in the body in the form of lactate (it dissociates from its hydrogen ions). The amount of lactic acid in the blood at the end of a maximal exercise test reflects 1) the intensity of the exercise for the cyclist (did the cyclist give a maximal effort), 2) the degree to which the cyclist needed to supplement aerobic energy production with anaerobic energy production, 3) the cyclist’s lactic acid tolerance. It should be noted that the amount of lactic acid in the blood at any point in time is dependent on both how much is entering the circulation (produced) and how much is being removed from the circulation (cleared). For example, endurance trained cyclists will tend to have lower blood lactate values at any given running speed, or intensity, than untrained cyclists; this difference owing partly to 1) better ability to use aerobic metabolism in the trained cyclists and 2) a better ability to remove lactate from the circulation. One reason why blood lactate is an important variable to assess is that the hydrogen ions that result from lactate production in the cell are known to cause muscle fatigue via several different mechanisms. A cyclist who can perform at high intensities with minimal lactate accumulation in the circulation will be better able to avoid fatigue. On the other hand, during high intensity exercise, the ability to use anaerobic energy systems is very important.

AT –Anaerobic Threshold

The anaerobic threshold (AT) is an outstanding predictor of endurance performance, (and sometimes more important than VO2max). AT corresponds with the intensity beyond which progressive increases in blood lactate occur. At intensities lower than the anaerobic threshold, almost all of the energy needed to perform the exercise is coming from aerobic energy systems. At intensities above this “threshold” anaerobic energy production is needed to supplement aerobic energy production, (primary fuel used is carbohydrates accompanied by fatigue and burning resulting in the cyclist having to slow down).